Anatomy and Physiology

Jan 07
2015

These intriguing areas of interest have everything to do with every aspect of organic life.

Anatomy and Physiology are both ways to look at studying a body. While Anatomy as a discipline centres on the structure of the body, Physiology is more focussed on the function of the components, whether individually or collectively. To examine these concepts in greater depth, there are specialisation categories for more focussed study.

Anatomical and Physiological Specialisims

Gross/macroscopic anatomy studies parts of the body that are visible to the naked eye, such as…eyes! Or veins, or muscles, or bones, or spleens.

Cytology focuses on cells in microscopic detail at a microscopic level, and Histology does the same with tissues.

Neurophysiology looks specifically at how the nervous system operates.

You can read more about this at Cliffnotes.

The Cardiovascular System

Made up of two circuits (hence also being referred to as the circulatory system), the cardiovascular system transports oxygen around the body.

The pulmonary circuit delivers blood to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide and add oxygen. The haemoglobin in red blood cells (which gives them their red colour) picks up the oxygen from the lungs to carry it around the body. The oxygenated blood then returns to the heart, which acts as a pump for the circuits.

The systemic circuit takes the oxygenated blood around the body to provide oxygen to other organs, and returns the deoxygenated blood to the heart.

The three core components of the cardiovascular system are the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood. You can read lots more about how this system works here.

The Respiratory System

Respiration is an intricate process that introduces oxygen into the body through the lungs, and energy in the form of glucose into the body via the muscles. When we breathe, air travels through the nose or mouth down the trachea and bronchi into the lungs. The bronchi extend down into the lungs into bronchioles, and these are covered in tiny sacs called alveoli, which is where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen passes from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide passes from the blood to the lungs.

Aerobic Respiration

This is when the body is at rest, and oxygen enters the lungs through breathing. When the body needs more oxygen, such as when exercising, the heart beats faster and breathing becomes faster and deeper to acquire and circulate oxygen faster.

Anaerobic Respiration

When more oxygen is needed than can be provided by breathing, the body has to convert stored energy from the glucose in the muscles into energy the body can use. A byproduct of this process is lactic acid build-up, which causes muscles to ache.

You can learn about the Respiratory System by reading about it by clicking here

Other areas of accessible interest for those wishing to find out more about the anatomy and physiology of humans include things like the Skeleton, Bones and Joints and Muscles and Motion.

Since everything we ever do is implicated by our understanding of anatomy and physiology, it’s well worth exploring these fascinating areas of study.

Online Health and Medicine Tutors

Dec 09
2014

The Internet has provided us with access to a wealth of information. One field that is a perfect example of this advancement is the medical sector. While at one time this data was solely used by doctors, the average individual now has the ability to view, discover and understand even the most complicated of medical and pharmacological procedures. Owing to the fact that there are countless online portals available, it is important that we take a quick look at a handful of the most reputable.

WebMD

WebMD is perhaps the most well-known online medical tutor and data portal. For example, let’s imagine that you think you may be coming down with the flu. Further insight can be found at highly interactive platforms such as their symptom checker. While not considered to boast the accuracy of a clinical diagnosis, this useful health checklist should not be discounted.

Wikipedia

This massive online encyclopaedia is considered your one-stop-shop for all types of information. In fact, there are millions of articles currently available that will provide you with untold amounts of advice and accurate information. From general conditions to revolutionary treatments such as stem cell therapy, you are privileged to more data than can possibly be imagined.

Interactive Tutoring

Although static knowledge is a key element in understanding medicine, let us imagine that you are studying to become a chiropractor. In this case, you will likely need a more hands-on approach in regards to your education. If classes are not enough, there are countless online portals which offer one-on-one tutoring sessions. As they will be geared entirely to your specific degree and skill level, they can be handy additions to the traditional learning atmosphere.

There is no question that the power of the Internet has affected nearly every aspect of our daily lives. Thanks to high-speed connections and a host of sites to choose from, gaining further experience in the field of medicine has never been easier.

Good Facts About Health and Medicine

Nov 22
2014

Health and medical research is moving forward at the speed of light, and one of the most promising advances is with stem cells. Although there is still some way to go, and there are a few obstacles to overcome, the future could be bright for people who suffer from: stroke, heart disease, diabetes, burns, rheumatoid and osteo-arthritis, and injuries to the spinal cord.

The Three Main Types of Stem Cells

Stem cells are classified into three major forms: embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells (also known as somatic stem cells), and induced-pluripotent stem cells. It is very exciting to think that in certain body tissues, adult stem cells can be engineered to regenerate the cells that died off through disease, injury, or just plain wear and tear from day-to-day living, work and exercise. Examples include muscle and bone tissue, and we can all imagine just how wonderful it would be for people with bone and joint problems to be treated in this ground breaking minimally invasive way.

Embryonic and Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells

Embryonic stem cells are obtained from a laboratory which stores fertilised eggs that have previously been removed from a woman’s body. Although the practice is controversial, they are of great interest to researchers as they can be miraculously engineered to generate into any form of specialised cell, thus making them “puripotent”. Genetically engineered stem cells taken from adults which act in the same way as embryonic stem cells, are referred to as: induced-pluripotent stem cells. They normally evolve in to the identical form of cell as the tissue in which they are placed; stem cells found in muscle tissue, for example, normally give rise to new muscle cells. Pluripotent stem cells now play a hugely important part in continuing research and drug experimentation which is rapidly altering the process of drug testing and development. Now, instead of having the safety of drugs verified using animal models, tested can be done using cells derived from pluripotent stem cells.

Regenerative medicine aims to treat different types of disease utilising cell-based therapy; and one of the avenues that leading scientists are researching is how the body’s undifferentiated stem cells (cells that are not aligned to specific body tissues and organs) transform to become differentiated stem cells (stem cells that are specialised to function in a specific tissue and organ such as heart tissue). By finding out more about this complex function, the scientists may be able to uncover more about the differentiation and abnormal cell division that brings about devastating disease such as birth defects and multiple cancers.

BioLamina is a long established highly renowned stem cell research facility that provides cutting edge distinct cell culture environments. These provide the cell culture for adult stem cells, pluripotent stem cells and the cells needed for individual tissue types. The reliability and grade increases with recombinant laminins (laminins are proteins that act as the foundation for cells. Recombinant laminins derived from humans allow cultured cells to connect to specialist unique bio-relevant matrices which imitate the cell growth’s natural environment.

5 tips on being a great tutor

Oct 07
2014

A tutor is one of the most important figures in a student’s school career. Tutors have an unprecedented opportunity to work directly with students and respond to their individual concerns. In order to be an effective tutor, there are certain skills you’ll need to master.

Handledare

Be Patient

Students who have agreed to meet with a tutor, particularly younger students, can sometimes feel nervous or embarrassed about being tutored. Be patient with them; as a tutor your role is to build confidence. A relaxed conversational style helps students feel at their ease.

Be Prepared

An important part of building confidence is preparation. Although a tutor’s plans are largely determined by the needs of the student, make sure you have the resources necessary to answer common questions. Find out in advance which specific topics your student is going to want help with and bring relevant materials.

Make Recommendations

One of your roles as tutor is to connect a student to the wider world of the subject. Be aware of other opportunities for your student to expand his or her knowledge. Recommend other books to read, exhibits to visit, or resources to use. Use your wider knowledge of the topic to help your student view the subject from other perspectives.

Listen

Some students may have trouble explaining exactly what they need to a tutor. Eager to please, they’re likely to agree to whatever you suggest, even if it isn’t really what they need to be doing. Ask open-ended questions to get your student talking about his or her classroom experience. Don’t ignore or downplay concerns about material the student finds too difficult; revisit it and study it in detail.

Teach Learning

The most valuable skills a tutor can teach are study skills. Helping a student learn facts is useful, but teaching him or her to find them out will be useful in future classes as well. Focus on methods rather than on data for the best possible outcome.